The following article covers the most important concepts whose knowledge is mandatory to become a QA Analyst. The most frequently asked QA Test Analyst interview questions are included here that will give you a clear idea of your interview preparation.
Difference between role of a QA and that of a software tester:
A QA monitors the quality of the “process” used to produce the software. A QA is responsible for a process that delivers software that meets the customer requirements with least iterations between testing and development teams and therefore ensuring most effective time and cost management of projects. A software tester’s responsibility, is to ensure that the functionality of final product meets the user’s requirement.
Testware is tools like needed to design and execute a test like test cases, test data, test plans.
Difference between build and release?
Build: is identified by a number given to the testing team by the development team for an Installable software.
Release: is identified by a number that is handed over to the customer by the tester or developer for an Installable software.
Challenges faced by the that SQA (Software Quality Assurance) team while testing
- Mastering the automation tool
- Reusability of Automation script
- Adaptability of test case for automation
- Automating complex test cases.
Difference between bug leakage and bug release:
When software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release, usually because the priority and the severity of the bug is low, it is known as bug release. Such bugs can be removed before the final handover.
When the bug is discovered by the end users or customer but was not detected by the testing team while testing the software, it is called bug leakage.
Data driven testing:
Data driven testing is an automation testing framework, that tests the different input values on the AUT. These values are read directly from the data files like csv files, excel files, data pools and many more.
What are the steps of Bug Cycle?
- Bug identified by tester, assigned to development manager in open status.
- If the bug is a valid, it is fixed.
- Else it is ignored and marked as rejected.
- Next the scope of the bug is checked. If bug is not a part of the current release then the bugs are postponed.
- In case the bug had already been raised earlier, the tester will assign a DUPLICATE status.
- When bug is assigned to the developer, it is given a IN-PROGRESS status.
- The status is changed to FIXED once repaired and finally CLOSED when it passes the final test.
- Once the defect is repaired, the status will change to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.
Components of the test strategy:
The test strategy comprises of an introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.
Different types of software testing:
- Unit testing
- Integration testing and regression testing
- Shakeout testing
- Smoke testing
- Functional testing
- Performance testing
- White box and Black box testing
- Alpha and Beta testing
- Load testing and stress testing
- System testing
Define branch testing and boundary testing.
The testing of each of the branches of the code, which is tested once, is known as branch testing. The testing, that tests the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing.
What do test plans and test cases have?
- Testing objectives
- Testing scope
- Testing the frame
- The environment
- Reason for testing
- The criteria for entrance and exit
- Risk factors
Define Agile testing and explain its importance.
Agile testing is a process or system of testing that uses using Agile Methodology. This testing methodology does not wait for the development team to complete the coding first before starting testing, unlike testing under different methodologies. The coding and testing both happen simultaneously. This methodology mandates continuous customer interaction.
Define Test case.
Test case is a set of specific conditions against which the Application Under Test is to be checked. It has defined test steps, prerequisites, test environment, and outputs.
Define strategy for Automation Test Plan.
The strategy for Automation Test Plan step by step is as follows:
- Preparation of Automation Test Plan
- Recording the scenario
- Error handler incorporation
- Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs
- Debugging the script and fixing the issues
- Rerunning the script
- Reporting the result
Explain quality audit.
Systematic and independent examination to determine the effectiveness of quality control procedures is known as the quality audit.
What tools are used by a tester while testing?
- YSlow for FireBug
- Web Developer toolbar for firebox
Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing.
- Load Testing: when an application is tested under heavy but expected load conditions, it is known as Load Testing. Load can refer to the volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
- Stress Testing: when an application is tested with load beyond the normal range it is known as Stress Testing.
- Volume Testing: The process of checking if the system can handle the expected amounts of load known as Volume Testing.
List the five common solutions for software developments problems.
- Setting up the requirements of the software that are complete, clear and agreed by all
- Setting up realistic schedule with time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing
- Planning for adequate testing that starts immediately after one or few modules have been developed.
- Using rapid prototyping in design phase so that it is easy for customers know what to expect.
- Using group communication tools
Explain ‘USE’ case and what it includes.
Documentation describing the user action and system response for a specific functionality is known as USE case. This typically includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.
What is CRUD testing and how is it done?
CRUD is an acronym for Create, Read, Update and Delete. CRUD testing is done using SQL statements.
Define thread testing.
A top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels is known as thread testing.
Define configuration management.
Configuration management is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project. Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.
Define Ad Hoc testing?
A testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality is ad hoc testing. It can include negative testing.
List out the roles of Software Quality Assurance engineer.
A software quality assurance engineer’s role includes:
- Writing source code
- Software design
- Control of source code
- Reviewing code
- Change management
- Configuration management
- Integration of software
- Program testing
- Release management process
Explain what are test drivers and test stubs and why are they required
- The stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach
- The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach
- It is required when we need to test the interface between modules X and Y and we have developed only module X. So we cannot just test module X but if there is any dummy module we can use that dummy module to test module X.
Explain what Bug triage is.
A bug triage is a process to sort and filter bugs by assigning them priority and ownership:
- Ensure bug report completeness
- Assign and analyze the bug
- Assigning bug to proper bug owner
- Adjust bug severity properly
- Set appropriate bug priority
List out various tools required to support testing during development of the application?
- Test Management Tools: JIRA, Quality Center etc.
- Defect Management Tools: Test Director, Bugzilla
- Project Management Tools: Sharepoint
- Automation Tools: RFT, QTP, and WinRunner
Explain cause effect graph.
A cause effect graph is a graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs that can be used to design test cases.
Explain Test Metric in software testing and list what information it contains?
Test Metric is the standard of test measurement. They are the numbers depicting the structure or content of a testing. It consists of parameters like:
- Total test
- Test run
- Test passed
- Test failed
- Tests deferred
- Test passed the first time
Explain traceability matrix.
A test matrix is used to map test scripts to requirements.
Explain the difference between Regression testing and Retesting.
Retesting is done to check the defects fixes, while regression testing is carried out to check whether the defect fix have any impact on other functionality.
List out the software quality practices through the software development cycle?
Software quality practices include:
- Review the requirements before starting the development phase
- Code Review
- Write comprehensive test cases
- Session based testing
- Risk based testing
- Prioritize bug based on usage
- Form a dedicated security and performance testing team
- Run a regression cycle
- Perform sanity tests on production
- Simulate customer accounts on production
- Include software QA Test Reports
Explain what is the rule of a “Test Driven Development”?
The rule of a Test Driven Development is to prepare test cases before writing the actual code. Which means you are actually be writing code for the tests before you write code for the application.
Mention the types of documents in SQA?
The types of documents in SQA are
- Requirement Document
- Test Metrics
- Test cases and Test plan
- Task distribution flow chart
- Transaction Mix
- User profiles
- Test log
- Test incident report
- Test summary report
Explain what QA documents should include.
QA testing document should include
- List the number of defects detected as per severity level
- Explain each requirement or business function in detail
- Inspection reports
- Test plans and test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals
- Prepare separate reports for managers and users
Explain MR and what information MR consists of.
MR is a acronym for Modification Request also referred as Defect report. It is written for reporting errors/problems/suggestions in the software.
List what the software QA document should include.
- Business rules
- Code changes
- Test plans
- Test cases
- Bug reports
- User manuals, etc
Detail how validation activities should be conducted.
- Hire third party independent verification and validation
- Assign internal staff members that are not involved in validation and verification activities
- Independent evaluation